Saturday, December 29, 2012




            TORONTO: The Creation of Pakistan was the Will of God  (Allah---The Almighty) to provide not only the Muslims but all supporters and promoters of love, respect, peace and humanity a place and platform from where they could practically serve all and help make the world a safe and better place to live in.
            For them this creation was indeed a golden opportunity and a precious gift from The Creator and Lord of The Worlds. This was the positive purpose of making of the wonderful nation Pakistan, undoubtedly one of the heavens on planet earth.
            This spiritual and divine decision and implementation was, as usual, beyond imagination of the enemies of humanity and mankind, who remained irked, were alerted and got scared by the firm intentions and practical actions, will, determination, struggle, goodness and greatness of the Great People of the Indian Sub-Continent, who always remained in the forefront as strong voice of the world people and champions of humanity.
            These Great People were brave and true leaders and belonged to various communities including Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians. They were visionary leaders and definitely the ones who felt the pain of the people and the need to free them from the grip and web of the cunning and cruel ones.
            The cunning and cruel ones always feared the spiritual power and rise of the Muslims, who remained past rulers and were supported by saner, sincere and patriotic leaders and people of other communities.
            The cunning ones planned conspiracies to deal with them and found a strong partner---The Colonialist Rulers---who were the masters of divide and rule. They became pimp and puppets of the Colonialist Rulers and both decided to cunningly divide the Muslims and ultimately destroy the feared Muslim unity and power.
            For them the partition of India-Pakistan was a great success of their international conspiracy. They very much enjoyed every bit of the chronic pain and tremendous sufferings of the Muslims and their supporters and others. Families were divided and shattered.
            Muslims of both sides started to dislike and hate each other, particularly the Indian Muslims blaming and cursing the Pakistanis for the partition. Even today most of the Indian Muslims dislike and hate Pakistanis and curse and abuse them. They remain in great complex whereas Pakistani Muslims have no such complex and instead always consider them as brothers, miss them and pray for their welfare.
            Not only this, Pakistanis always raised voice and stand for the Indian Muslims, whenever and wherever needed. This is because the Muslims in Pakistan had been doing this for centuries. Now, after creation of Pakistan, they were doing this openly and fearlessly.
            The Indian Muslims should understand this and thank the Pakistanis. They must understand why the God (Allah---The Almighty) created Pakistan. It is they who one day with the help of others will come to their help to free them from the clutches, grip and web of the cunning and cruel ones. Learn a lesson from history. Ask the historians to tell the truth.
            The Indian and Pakistani Muslims and all those of the Muslim World must understand this clearly that Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Founder of Pakistan, was not an ordinary person.  Undoubtedly, he was one of the greatest Great True Leaders of all times. He was such a Great Visionary that some thought he was a saintly figure (Wali Allah).
            Pir Jamaat Ali Shah of Hyderabad Deccan after receiving a letter sent by Mohammad Ali Jinnah to thank him for the gifts presented said that despite the long distance between their places----Jinnah in Bombay and Pir Jamaat Ali Shah in Hyderabad Deccan, Jinnah understood the good intentions of the Pir behind the gifts and said he (Jinnah) indeed was a Wali Allah. Such was the vision of this Great Visionary Leader.
            A religious figure, Maulana Ahmed Saeed, Secretary, Jamiatul Ulama-i-Hind, in a speech at the Jamia Masjid in Muradabad, India, on December 7, 1936, paid rich tributes to Mohammad Ali Jinnah and conferred a title. Translated in English, his words were: “Among the Muslims today, there is no one who understands politics better than he (Jinnah) does. Hence he fully deserves to be the Quaid-e-Azam of the Muslims.” The title was immediately adopted by the Muslims of India.
            The title received statutory recognition by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. On 12 August 1947, it resolved that Mohammad Ali Jinnah be addressed as Quaid-e-Azam in all acts and documents.” Such an example, where a title of honour became a great leader’s identification even more than his real name, is rare in modern history.
            Malik Habib Ullah, a devotee of Quaid-e-Azam and a researcher of high merit, in his book, Quaid-e-Azam Ki Shakhsyyat Ka Ruhani Pehlu (The Spiritual Side of Quaid-e-Azam’s Personality) has thrown light on the spiritual qualities of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. This wonderful document fulfills the vital need for making people aware that their matchless political leader had this sterling quality also.
            Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, a renowned scholar and a Sufi, was a totally non-political personality who would not associate himself with any political party or politician. On a visit to Amritsar in 1938, while addressing a gathering of his disciples, he surprised them with his praise and support for Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
            He said about Jinnah: “He is a sincere and truthful Muslim and is the most capable leader of the Indian Muslims. The light of his truthfulness and sincerity shows that he will surely succeed. God Almighty will honour him with the feat of creating a separate State for the Muslims. I have told all my followers that they are to back Mohammad Ali Jinnah in every matter and under all conditions.”
            On 4 July 1943, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi asked his nephew, Maulana Zafar Ahmad Usmani, and Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani to see him. When they came, he said to them:
            “I have seen in a spiritual vision (Kashf) that Allah The Omnipotent will grant success to Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Pakistan Resolution of 1940 will triumph. My days are numbered. Were I to live, I would have certainly helped. It is God’s Will that Muslims should have a separate state. Do whatever you can for creation of Pakistan; encourage your followers also to do the same. One of you two Usmanis will lead my funeral prayer while the other will lead Mr Jinnah’s funeral prayer.”
Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who was deservingly given the title of Quaid-e-Azam (Supreme Leader), always remained bold, firm and fully determined to accomplish the job assigned to him by none other than Allah---The Almighty. He was indeed a true servant of Islam and people and a soldier of Allah---The Almighty. His decision, struggle and success proved this.
            The fact that the God (Allah---The Almighty) chose Mohammad Ali Jinnah for such an  important purpose proves his greatness and goodness. Jinnah hid his chronic illness and closeness to The Almighty in order to dodge and fight the cunning and cruel ones and international conspirators. He deserves to be respectfully called Hazrat Quaid-e-Azam or Hazrat Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
            Had the cunning and cruel ones and international conspirators known this, they would have fully exploited the situation and seriously harmed Muslims in other ways. Like Viceroy of India Lord Mountbatten said that had he known about the bad health condition of Jinnah he would have delayed the partition and then there would have been no Pakistan.
            The Colonialists rulers wanted to prolong their rule and have both Hindus and Muslims under them whereas the cunning and cruel ones wanted to get rid of Muslims in order to have an open field for them and later rule India. Even now they dream of this and want to establish the Hindustan Empire or Akhand Bharat. Their intentions, actions and conspiracies expose and explain them and their cunningness. The Muslims of India need to understand this.
            Addressing a meeting of the Working Committee of the All-India Muslim League on October 22, 1939, in Lahore, Mohammad Ali Jinnah made a memorable statement. It was published in Urdu in “Daily Inqilab”. The English translation is as follows:
            “Muslims! I have seen enough of the world, have enjoyed wealth and fame. Now I have only one wish in life, that I should see the Muslims liberated and independent. I wish when I die I should die with this belief and satisfaction that my conscience and my God should bear witness that Jinnah was not insincere or disloyal to Islam and that he discharged his duty toward liberating, organizing and defending the Muslims. I am not asking for any appreciation or testimony from you. I want  that at the time of my death, my own heart, my faith, my conscience should testify: Jinnah, indeed, you fulfilled the obligation of defending Islam; Jinnah you carried out your duty of organizing, uniting and defending the Muslims; my God should say: indeed you were born a Muslim, and you died a Muslim while holding the banner of Islam high in the dominance of the forces of unbelief.”
            Only those who are blinded by the venomous negative propaganda of international conspiracy or those who lack knowledge of the facts and realities of creation of Pakistan and about the good character, personality and intentions of Mohammad Ali Jinnah and his sincere followers and supporters would talk nonsense about Pakistan, Jinnah and others.
            The day they will come to know, realize and understand the facts and realities about making of Pakistan and the struggle made and tremendous sacrifices given for its creation, they would start feeling proud and would struggle for Muslim Ummah and humanity. That day is  bound to come. This is also the Will of God (Allah---The Almighty).
            Since its birth on August 14, 1947, and till the present day, Pakistan and Pakistanis faced difficult days and extremely tough challenges. Most of the time, the sailing remained rough. The international conspirators and their cunning and cruel partners were expecting the destruction of Pakistan ASAP.
            The delay in destruction and the unexpected great progress and success achieved by Pakistan and Pakistanis, despite all the challenges, troubles and hurdles, increased their worry and anger and made them very restless.
            Through venomous negative propaganda, cunningness and web of corruption and confusion, they started damaging the system and society of Pakistan. Slowly and gradually true leadership was replaced by cunning, crook and corrupt ones. The Public Servants were replaced by Poisonous Serpents.
            Qazzaks (Looters & Plunderers) have penetrated and controlled the parliament, assemblies, bureaucracy, institutions, system and society. After Quaid-e-Azam (Mohammad Ali Jinnah), Quad-e-Millat (Liaquat Ali Khan) and Madar-e-Millat (Fatima Jinnah) the country and the people mostly remained slaves of the Qazzaks (Looters and Plunderers). The country badly needs a True Quaid (True Leader) to get rid of Quaid-e-Qazzaks and his band of crooks   
            These deadly serpents in the shape of rulers, bureaucrats, policymakers, lawmakers, politicians, leaders, fake mullahs and so on are busy day and night in injecting poison in the form of corruption into Pakistan. Now, Pakistan is seriously ill and the enemies are happy and expecting that their conspiracy plan will succeed.
            This they always think and become happy but then are disappointed when Pakistan shows progress and success. One thing they always forget or don’t realize is that Pakistan was created by the Will of God (Allah---The Almighty). No matter how much poison they inject in whatever forms and through whatever means and how much damage and destruction they cause, Allah is always there to protect Pakistan and Pakistanis.
            Even the creation of Bangladesh is going in favour of Pakistan and Muslims of South Asia. The Muslims have not been weakened. They have instead become stronger. The progress and prosperity of Bangladesh proves this. It is too bound to become a great Muslim power. This is all again due to the Will of God (Allah---The Almighty). The enemies and conspirators again are very much disturbed. Whatever they are thinking or doing is going against them.
            On people-to-people level majority of Bangladeshis and Pakistanis love, respect and support each other. The wise and saner elements in both countries know very well who the enemies are and what their intentions are. Both the countries enjoy very good and brotherly relations now.
The conspirators are amazed, surprised and angered. The conspiracy plan no doubt caused tremendous destruction, terrible sufferings and mass killings but failed to harm Muslim unity. The international conspiracy plan miserably failed once again.
            Pakistanis and all Muslims in the South Asia region must prepare themselves to serve humanity in reality. They can do this only if they start to choose, promote and support True Leadership. Such true leaders can practically help achieve Muslim Unity.
            Instead of cursing and abusing ourselves as Pakistanis and Muslims or Mohammad Ali Jinnah and others including our elders for making Pakistan or becoming disappointed by the extremely bad situation in Pakistan and worst condition of people, we must stand up to face the tough challenges and difficult times. The top priority must be to get rid of all Qazzaks (Looters and Plunders) and their Quaid (Leader).
            The only solution is True Leadership. Great true leaders are badly needed to save Pakistan and make the country and the Muslim World a real World Power. Only they can turn this dream into reality. We must compose ourselves and understand this very well that Pakistan’s destiny is such that it is bound to become a great power and lead the Muslim World.
            Muslims must realize and understand that this too is a Will of Allah---The Almighty. Even if we fail to find or chose a true leader, Allah---The Almighty will chose a Great Leader, like He chose Mohammad Ali Jinnah, to protect Pakistan and lead the Muslim World.
            This Great Leader will also help free the Indian Muslims and all those innocent and helpless people of other communities and religions in India or in the South Asia region from the grip of the cunning and cruel ones. This will not be the first time to happen. The past is full of such examples. When Great Leaders were called for help they responded positively and helped and freed the people. History will repeat itself. This is what the cunning and cruel ones fear the most.
            Let us demonstrate Muslim Unity with the aim and objective of practically serving humanity in reality. Our will and determination can smash and remove all hurdles and obstacles and can make us strong enough to meet even the toughest challenges. We can only serve humanity in reality if we live and work with all communities including Christian, Muslim, Jew, Hindu, Sikh and others. Good people of all communities belong to only one category---GOOD. So prove our greatness through goodness.
            Unless and until every member of the community becomes a QUAID (Team Leader) this objective can never be achieved. A good person or a good Muslim will never promote and support hatred or terrorism. You can only expect the best and prepare for the worst if you put yourself on the right tract with firm decision and determination. The Internet world has made it easy for us to acquire vast knowledge about anything and everything including M. A. Jinnah
            ---Javed Zaheer, Free Expression Award Winner, Desi Idol Recognition Award Winner, Member/Honorary Director of NEPMCC, Veteran Active Member (VAM) of Toronto Press Club, Ex-Member of The National Club and The Ontario Club, Honorary Editor of English Weekly `Pakistan Abroad’, ex-Chief Editor (Honorary) of English Weekly `The Ambassador’, ex-Senior Sub-Editor of English Daily DAWN, Pakistan, Chairman, CANOPI, and Director, Canpak Camber of Commerce, is contributing purely on Voluntary and Honorary Basis in order to serve all people and communities. Contact: (416)696-0981/ To read more JZ’s exclusive articles, please visit: www. and (Editorial Sections. Scan years from 2004 to 2011. Also visit

Friday, November 23, 2012





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Allāh - (الله)
Islamic God
Allah (English pronunciation: /ˈælə/ or /ˈɑːlə/; Arabic: اللهAllāh, IPA: [ʔɑlˈlɑː] ( listen), [ʔalˤˈlˤɑː]) is a word for God. In Arabic, the word means simply "the God."[1][2][3] It is used mainly by Muslims,[4] Arab Christians, and often, albeit not exclusively, by Bahá'ís, Arabic-speakers, Indonesian, Malaysian and Maltese Christians, Mizrahi Jews and Sikhs.[5][6][7]



The Arabic components that build-up the word "Allah":
1. alif
2. hamzat waṣl (همزة وصل)
3. lām
4. lām
5. shadda (شدة)
6. dagger alif (ألف خنجرية)
7. hāʾ
The term Allāh is derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article al- "the" and ʾilāh "deity, god" to al-lāh meaning "the [sole] deity, God" (ὁ θεὸς μόνος, ho theos monos).[8] Cognates of the name "Allāh" exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.[9] Biblical Hebrew mostly uses the plural form (but functional singular) Elohim. The corresponding Aramaic form is ʼĔlāhā ܐܠܗܐ in Biblical Aramaic and ʼAlâhâ ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply "God".[10] In the Sikh scriptures, Guru Granth Sahib, the term Allah (Punjabi: ਅਲਹੁ) is used 37 times.[11]
The name was previously used by pagan Meccans as a reference to a creator deity, possibly the supreme deity in pre-Islamic Arabia.[12][13] The concepts associated with the term Allah (as a deity) differ among religious traditions. In pre-Islamic Arabia amongst pagan Arabs, Allah was not considered the sole divinity, having associates and companions, sons and daughters–a concept that was deleted under the process of Islamization. In Islam, the name Allah is the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name, and all other divine names are believed to refer back to Allah.[14] Allah is unique, the only Deity, creator of the universe and omnipotent.[5][6] Arab Christians today use terms such as Allāh al-ʾAb (الله الأب, "God the Father") to distinguish their usage from Muslim usage.[15] There are both similarities and differences between the concept of God as portrayed in the Qur'an and the Hebrew Bible.[16] It has also been applied to certain living human beings as personifications of the term and concept.[17][18]
Unicode has a codepoint reserved for Allāh, = U+FDF2.[19] Many Arabic type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.[20]

Usage in Arabic

Pre-Islamic Arabia

In pre-Islamic Arabia, Allah was used by Meccans as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity.[21] Allah was not considered the sole divinity; however, Allah was considered the creator of the world and the giver of rain. The notion of the term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.[8] Allah was associated with companions, whom pre-Islamic Arabs considered as subordinate deities. Meccans held that a kind of kinship existed between Allah and the jinn.[22] Allah was thought to have had sons[23] and that the local deities of al-ʿUzzā, Manāt and al-Lāt were His daughters.[24] The Meccans possibly associated angels with Allah.[25][26] Allah was invoked in times of distress.[26][27] Muhammad's father's name was ʿAbd-Allāh meaning "the slave of Allāh".[26]


Medallion showing 'Allah' in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey.
According to Islamic belief, Allah is the proper name of God,[28] and humble submission to His Will, Divine Ordinances and Commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith.[5] "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind."[5][6] "He is unique (wāḥid) and inherently one (ʾaḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent."[5] The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures."[5]

Allah script outside Eski Cami (The Old Mosque) in Edirne, Turkey.
In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God (al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā lit. meaning: "The best names") each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.[6][29] All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.[14] Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" (ar-raḥmān) and "the Compassionate" (al-raḥīm).[6][29]
Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic phrase ʾinšāʾ Allāh (meaning "God willing") after references to future events.[30] Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of bismi-llāh (meaning "In the name of God").[31]
There are certain phrases in praise of God that are favored by Muslims, including "Subhan-Allah" (Holiness be to God), "Alhamdulillah" (Praise be to God), lā ʾilāha ʾilla-llāh (There is no deity but God) and "Allāhu Akbar" (God is great) as a devotional exercise of remembering God (zikr).[32] In a Sufi practice known as zikr Allah (lit. remembrance of God), the Sufi repeats and contemplates on the name Allah or other divine names while controlling his or her breath.[33]
Some scholars[who?] have suggested that Muhammad used the term Allah in addressing both pagan Arabs and Jews or Christians in order to establish a common ground for the understanding of the name for God, a claim Gerhard Böwering says is doubtful.[28] According to Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Islam does not have associates and companions nor is there any kinship between God and jinn.[28] Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.[34]
According to Francis Edwards Peters, "The Qur'an insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad and his followers worship the same God as the Jews (29:46). The Koran's Allah is the same Creator God who covenanted with Abraham". Peters states that the Qur'an portrays Allah as both more powerful and more remote than Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh who closely follows Israelites.[16]


The Aramaic word for "God" in the language of Assyrian Christians is ʼĔlāhā, or Alaha. Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God".[7] The Christian Arabs of today have no other word for 'God' than 'Allah'.[15] (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses Alla for 'God'.) Arab Christians for example use terms Allāh al-ʾab (الله الأب) meaning God the Father, Allāh al-ibn (الله الابن) mean God the Son, and Allāh ar-rūḥ al-quds (الله الروح القدس) meaning God the Holy Spirit. (See God in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.)
Arab Christians have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim bismi-llah, and also created their own Trinitized bismi-llah as early as the eight century CE.[35] The Muslim bismi-llah reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized bismi-llah reads: "In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God." The Syriac, Latin and Greek invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.[35]
According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah there as God the Creator.[36]


As Hebrew and Arabic are closely related Semitic languages, it is commonly accepted that Allah (root, ʾilāh) and the Biblical Elohim are cognate derivations of same origin, as in Eloah a Hebrew word which is used (e.g. in the Book of Job) to mean "(the) God" and also "god or gods" as in the case of Elohim, ultimately deriving from the root El, "strong", possibly genericized from El (deity), as in the Ugaritic 'lhm "children of El" (the ancient Near Eastern creator god in pre-Abrahamic tradition).
In Jewish scripture Elohim is used as a descriptive title for the God of the scriptures whose name is YHWH, as well as for pagan gods.

As a loanword

English and other European languages

The history of the word "Allāh" in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle (1840) sometimes used the term Allah but without any implication that Allah was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muhammad (1934), Tor Andræ always used the term Allah, though he allows that this 'conception of God' seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.[37]
Languages which may not commonly use the term Allah to denote God may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word ojalá in the Spanish language and oxalá in the Portuguese language exist today, borrowed from Arabic (Arabic: إن شاء الله). This word literally means "God willing" (in the sense of "I hope so").[38] The German poet Mahlmann used the form "Allah" as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey.
Some Muslims leave the name "Allāh" untranslated in English.[39]

Malaysian and Indonesian language

The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "Godt".
Christians in Indonesia and Malaysia also use Allah to refer to God in the Malaysian language and Indonesian language (both languages forms of the Malay language which is referred to as Bahasa Melayu).
Mainstream Bible translations in both languages use Allah as the translation of Hebrew Elohim (translated in English Bibles as "God").[40] This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier in the 16th century.[41][42] The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin-edition) recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "Godt".[43] Ruyl also translated Matthew in 1612 to Malay language (first Bible translation to non-European language, only a year after King James Version was published[44][45]), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated Mark which was published in 1638.[46][47]
The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term Allah in any other but Muslim contexts, but the High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling that it was unconstitutional. While Allah had been used for the Christian God in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of Allah by the Roman Catholic newspaper The Herald. The government has in turn appealed the court ruling, and the High Court has suspended implementation of its verdict until the appeal is heard.

In other scripts and languages

Name of Allāh after the 17th century Ottoman calligrapher Hâfız Osman
Allāh in other languages with Arabic script is spelled in the same way. This includes Urdu, Persian/Dari, Uyghur among others.


The word Allāh is always written without an ʾalif to spell the ā vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic spelling started habitually using ʾalif to spell ā. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic ʾalif is added on top of the šaddah to indicate the pronunciation.
One exception may be in the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,[48] where it ends with an ambiguous sign that may be a lone-standing h with a lengthened start, or may be a non-standard conjoined l-h:-
  • الاه : This reading would be Allāh spelled phonetically with ʾalif for the ā.
  • الإله : This reading would be Al-ʾilāh = "the god" (an older form, without contraction), by older spelling practice without ʾalif for ā.


Unicode has a codepoint reserved for Allāh, ‎ = U+FDF2. This character according to the official Unicode specification is a ligature of alif-lām-lām-shadda-(superscript alif)-hā (اللّٰه U+0627 U+0644 U+0644 U+0651 U+0670 U+0647).

An example of Allāh written in simple Arabic calligraphy.
There is, however some confusion arising from the fact that Arabic typography usually features a llāh glyph without the preceding ʾalif, which only occurs phrase-initially (or with hamzatu l-waṣl ٱ in Qur'anic orthography). Consequently, the majority of Arabic Unicode fonts do not conform with the specification and have a glyph without the alif at this position (e.g. those provided by Linotype, the great majority of those licensed to or developed by Microsoft, those of, SIL's Lateef and the fonts of CRULP developed in Pakistan), while others have the prescribed form with alif (e.g. SIL's Scheherazade, Adobe Arabic distributed with the Middle-Eastern version of the Adobe Reader 7, Arial Unicode MS, and Arabic Typesetting, distributed with VOLT and with Microsoft Office Proofing Tools 2003).
The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at codepoint U+262B ().

See also


  1. ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  2. ^ "Islam and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
  3. ^ L. Gardet. "Allah". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster. "Allah". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Allah
  7. ^ a b Columbia Encyclopedia, Allah
  8. ^ a b L. Gardet, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam
  9. ^ Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite El, the Mesopotamian ilu, and the biblical Elohim and Eloah, the word Allah is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists.
  10. ^ The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon – Entry for ʼlh
  11. ^ Guru Granth Sahib website (Search: ਅਲਹ|ਅਲਾਹ)
  12. ^ L. Gardet, "Allah", Encyclopedia of Islam
  13. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "prayer". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 274–275. ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6.
  14. ^ a b Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam : a sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought. SUNY. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.
  15. ^ a b Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Holt, Peter R.; Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford (1977). The Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge, Eng: University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.
  16. ^ a b F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003
  17. ^ Nation of Islam – personification of Allah as Detroit peddler W D Fard
  18. ^ "A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters", referring to Clarence Smith as Allah
  19. ^ Unicode Standard 5.0, p.479,492
  20. ^
  21. ^ See Qur'an 13:16 ; 29:61–63; 31:25; 39:38)
  22. ^ See Qur'an 37:158)
  23. ^ See Qur'an (6:100)
  24. ^ See Qur'an (53:19–22 ; 16:57 ; 37:149)
  25. ^ See Qur'an (53:26–27)
  26. ^ a b c Gerhard Böwering, God and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  27. ^ See Qur'an 6:109; 10:22; 16:38; 29:65)
  28. ^ a b c Böwering, Gerhard, God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.
  29. ^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 978-0-87808-299-5.
  30. ^ Gary S. Gregg, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, Oxford University Press, p.30
  31. ^ Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Society in Practice, University Press of Florida, p. 24
  32. ^ M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed, Encyclopaedia of Islam,Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 144
  33. ^ Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, Sufi Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond, Macmillan, p. 29
  34. ^ Allah, Encyclopædia Britannica
  35. ^ a b Thomas E. Burman, Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs, Brill, 1994, p. 103
  36. ^ Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, p. 156
  37. ^ William Montgomery Watt, Islam and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45
  38. ^ Islam in Luce López Baralt, Spanish Literature: From the Middle Ages to the Present, Brill, 1992, p.25
  39. ^ F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, p.12
  40. ^ Example: Usage of the word "Allah" from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian bible versions (parallel view) as old as 1733
  41. ^ The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society Sneddon, James M.; University of New South Wales Press; 2004
  42. ^ The History of Christianity in India from the Commencement of the Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Media Corporation; 2001
  43. ^ Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. "Vocabularium ofte Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in 't Duytsch en Maleys". 1650:65
  44. ^ Barton, John (2002–12). The Biblical World, Oxford, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27574-3.
  45. ^ North, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Book of a Thousand Tongues, London: United Bible Societies.
  46. ^ (Indonesian) Biography of Ruyl
  47. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl
  48. ^ "Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE". Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005.


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