Wednesday, November 21, 2012


By M.Masood Sikander Baig

India a country of religiously and linguistically diversified population consisting of mainly Hindus and Muslims subdivided further by castes and creeds had been under the rule of  varios Muslim empires lastly of Moghul Empire for thousand years.
Moghul Empire came under the shadow of British imperialism because of political and economic circumstances deteriorated under the ineptitude Moghul rulers. The empire disintegrated  and yielded to the growing political domination of East India Company. First War of Independence,  termed as Mutiny by the British Raj, was fought when the Indian army  revolted in protest against the use of animal fat-sealed cartridges on religious ground supported by some Muslims and loyal Hindu Brahmins. The movement  was ill organized and localized at Meerat only and without any leadership which was soon crushed by British army to establish British Raj in India. India would have disintegrated into small units if otherwise India was not under the British rule.    Syed Ahmed Khan played an  important role in the promotion of education  and development of social-political consciousness among Muslims who had opposed British educational reforms and voiced “Islam in Danger”.  Hindus took the full opportunity and left behind Muslims in all spheres of life.  Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 to represent Hindus and Muslims for self rule.  Muslims sensed that Congress was  mostly in the interest of Hindus disregarded  Muslim interest.   Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Viqarul Mulk, who were of identical views, said that Muslims despite living with Hindus and other communities for hundreds of years could not become ONE Nation  as they were a separate entity.   Muslims led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan formed the Jamiat-i-Muhibban-i-Hind [The Joint Committee of the Friends of India] in 1888.  Viqar-ul-Mulk and Nawab of Dhaka  decided to form All India Muslim League in 1906 in Dacca to safeguard the interest of Muslims.  
 Jinnah joined Indian Congress in 1897  and played a positive role for the unity of Muslims and Hindus in a united India, who was called an ambassador of Hindu Muslim unity.  Jinnah  joined Muslim League in 1913 and advocated later "Two nation theory"asserting the identity of  Muslim as a separate nation.  Gandhi  joined Congress in1915 and adopted the  nonviolent passive resistance tactics, Satyagrah, as practiced in South Africa.. Jinnah differed with the tactics of Gandhi, who emphasized upon Hindu Muslim united struggle to achieve the objectives in a gradual and legal ways with loyalty to the Crown.  Under  Lucknow Pact of 1916 moved at the initiative of Jinnah, Muslim League and Congress pledged  to struggle jointly for the independence from British Raj.     Congress rejected Montage Chelmsford  Report of 1917 on self-government and resorted to non-cooperation with the government that led to Rowlat Act of 1919   enacted to curb rebellious activities but it was also rejected by Congress.   Jinnah stated that a firm constitutional base would have binding force for Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and other minority communities in India, otherwise it would be divided into units reflecting diversities. On the other hand Gandhi emphasized upon freedom of India from the British imperialism first.  Jinnah  being  dejected because of differences with Congress leaders   left for London  leaving Muslim League  without his  leadership. But he was disappointed to see the Muslims in the subcontinent divided in 1930s into different political organizations having divergent ambitious and political interests besides Shia Sunni conflicts and Ahmedia controversy.  Gandhi supported Khilafat Movement  and urged Muslims to abandon their homes and leave India to migrate to Turkey in protest against the  British policy to end the Khilafat in Turkey which was considered actually to isolate Muslim League and Jinnah.. Rifts between Muslims and Hindus widened and created communal riots.  Jinnah  decided to return from London in response to the appeal of  Liaquat Ali Khan  to resume the leadership of Muslim League ending his self-imposed exile [1932-1934].   He parted ways with the Congress, wanted the movement in a legal and constitutional ways. Allama Mohammed Iqbal  mentioned Punjab, North-Western Province, Sindh and Baluchistan only to form a single province/state having Muslim majority, in his address to All-India Muslim League Session on 29 December 1930. He urged Jinnah to get the Muslim province.  The name "Pakistan "was later coined by Choudhry Rehmat Ali in England in January 1933 for Muslim majority areas pointed out  in the  map and also suggested "Osmanistan" for Hyderabad-Deccan,a Muslim state.
Because of differences and disputes  between Hindus and Muslims, British Government adopted "Divide and Rule policy”and  discouraged political movements. “Churchill regarded the Hindu Muslim feuds as the bulwark of British rule in India”[Churchill , Cripps and India by R.J.Mooro P28].  Simon Commission enacted India Act of 1935  was rejected by Congress but  accepted partially by Muslim League. Elections under the Act  were jointly contested in UP by Muslims and Hindus who pledged to form a coalition government. Muslims in India were divided in different social- political organizations having their own political agendas in pre partition days opposed Jinnah and the conception of Pakistan..Sikander Hayat Khan led  Unionists Party in Punjab, Fazlul Haq,"The Tiger of Bengal"led Krishak Proja Party in Bengal, United Party in Sindh,  Abdul Ghaffar Khan led pro Congress Khudai Khidmatgar Party in NWFP, who worked  Hindu Muslim unity and had formed provincial government. Because of growing confrontations between Hindus majority,  Jinnah decided to opt for a separate homeland for Muslims and adopted the Lahore Resolution in Muslim Session on March 23,1940 which was announced by Fazle Haq of Bengal.  Division of India for a separate homeland was considered  the only course of action.  It was resolved that the  the Muslims majority areas  in the northwestern and eastern zone of India should be grouped to constitute “independent States” which should be autonomous and sovereign.  The Resolution was modified later adding the word “Pakistan” in April 1946 for a separate Muslim state comprising Punjab, North Western Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh Province, Bengal and Assam provinces having autonomy and sovereign powers. Jinnah announced that Pakistan would be a secular state.  Feudal lords,  Zamndars, tribal chiefs, Peers and religious clerics  opposed  Muslim League and labeled  Jinnah as heretic[Kafir] and called him as  lackey of British.  Khaksar Movement, an Islamic military organization, led by Allama Inayatullah Mushriqi, violently opposed  Jinnah. The Ahrar in Punjab an extreme religious movement wanted Hukumat-i-Illahia.   Jamaat Islami of Maulana Abul-ala-Maududi opposed the conception of Pakistan. Moreover,  Muslims had association with Socialists, Communists and pro Nazis organizations. Many Muslim leaders  identified with Gandhi had joined Congress. Congress and  British, who had  identical views for united India, opposed the demand of ML for Pakistan.  Simon Commission  led by  Sir Stafford Cripps  in 1942 proposed for 3 groups for Hindus, Muslims and for princely states  with autonomy and with their own constitutions working under the center.  Second option was to divide Punjab and Bengal but to keep India united with complete five provinces of Muslim majority areas being semi independent remaining under the Union. In case of complete independent Pakistan  five truncated provinces were to be accepted [excluding non-Muslim majority districts which could not be given to Pakistan. The proposals were accepted by Congress and Muslim League except Gandhi who dissented and demanded India's freedom. He anticipated that  Japan's victory  in the war would consequently neutralize Jinnah's demand for Pakistan. Gandhi called for "Quit India Movement" in July 1942 and for massive disobedience, non-cooperation with the British in the event of war and ordered its elected officials to quit their posts  in government and from their legislative assemblies memberships. It was followed by Satayagrah[agitations, civil disobedience.  Schools, colleges, government offices,  shops were shut down and  communication lines and railway lines were disrupted.  Many Congress workers, leaders including Gandhi and Nehru were arrested and put in prisons.  India's  independence movement of Congress had great set back during the incarceration of top leaders and workers.. Congress leaders and workers lost their will to carry on their struggle for independence. The tide of events favoured Muslim League to become  popular and to gain strength.  Jinnah  termed it as a “Ghandhian Himaliyan Blunder.” .  The ministries were consequently  dissolved.  Jinnah, on the contrary, announced support to the British government and urged Muslims to  join British armed forces in the World War 11.  Gandhi’s calculation proved wrong when Japanese attack was repulsed. Congress came under punitive actions of British government to the advantage of  Muslim League that gained momentum and emerged as popular Muslim national party in the subcontinent.  The day was called by Qaid as a “Day of Deliverance” and urged upon the British to “Divide and quit.” Lord Vawell,Viceroy of India in 1943, proposed executive council to be represented by Hindus and Muslims and other minorities, who failed to reconcile them upon the representation ratios to the council. Jinnah demanded Muslim League to be the only authoritative body to nominate Muslims to the council having 1/3 representation.  The economy of British Imperialism had great decline because of expenditure on war, law and order situation, and heavy debts.. Conditions further deteriorated due to labour unrest, strikes, communal riots, and rise of Soviet Russia followed by  communists uprising defying British empire.  Clement Attlee successor of Sir Winston Churchill who since long was supporter for India's independence and had  identical views with Congress for freedom in a united India, decided to vacate India.  During the elections campaign for central legislative assembly and provincial legislative assemblies in  December 1945 and January 1946, Qaid-e-Azam appealed the Muslim masses all over India to unite under the banner of Muslim League for achievement of Pakistan  emphasizing that Muslim League  was  the only representative organization of Muslims in the subcontinent.  He appealed the Muslims to vote for Muslim League candidates only as that would be ultimately the vote for  Pakistan.  Election results showed 100% candidates won the central legislative assembly seats and in provincial legislative assemblies[i.e 428 out of 492 seats]..  Where as in 1937 Muslim league had won 109 seats only.  It was evident that the success of Muslim League candidates was a clear verdict in favour of Pakistan.  Cabinet Mission Plan [Feb 1946 second Wavel Plan] was  led by Lord Pethic Lawrence and Stafford Cripps and A.V.Alexander who proposed for a Union of India that embodied all the country including princely states.  Under the Plan, provinces had the option to reject or accept  Union. Cabinet Mission Plan proposed an Interim Government, a federation/confederation plan  to be formed on  parity basis between Hindus and Muslim.  The plan was accepted by  Muslim League totally and Congress partially.  Consensus between Muslim League and Congress could not be arrived at the formation of interim government on parity basis.  Sir Stafford Cripps proposed the grouping plan suggested as earlier except the system would work for ten years there-after any group with majority votes could opt out of the Union and become independent. The second option was the independence of Pakistan being incomplete/ moth eaten comprising Muslim majority areas of Punjab and Bengal divided excluding Hindu majority areas. In case of complete  five provinces of Muslim majority areas with Sylhet district from Assam province, as insisted by Qaid, could be given if they  remain under  the Union.  Jinnah approved the ten years plan.  Congress rejected the scheme in the Simla Conference on May 5, 1946 because of the parity between the groups, and Muslim League considered the parity to be an integral part.  Congress insisted on its claim to be the representative body of all Indians including Muslims to the interim government, on the other hand, Muslim League claimed to be the exclusive  authoritative body to represent Muslims.  Jinnah's stand was rigid and inflexible.  Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission  Plan, and called for  Direct Action plan for achievement of Pakistan.  Congress changed its stand and  decided  to accept the entire plan to  outwit Muslim League, and sought the cooperation of Jinnah who rejected the offer.  Congress moved to form the government unilaterally and convened constituent assembly without participation of Muslim League, and it was permitted by the British government.  Jinnah rejected the plan on the plea that Congress  had backed away  from the approval of total plan, earlier, accepted only the portion of the proposal regarding  method of election to the constituent assembly.  Jinnah cited paragraph 8 of the Cabinet Mission which authorized any party to form the government if it approved the total proposals of the plan. The Viceroy was thus called to honour  paragraph 8 of the Cabinet Mission statement and permit Muslim League to form the government.  But the British Government  reversed their  original decision without prior notice and decided to authorize Congress to establish constituent assembly in August, 1946.  Ambiguous policy of British provoked Jinnah  who  sensed  it a betrayal, boycotted  the session of constituent assembly.  Unrest was being felt earlier, students had taken out processions and demonstrated on the streets of Calcutta, clashed with police.  Muslim League adopted the resolution of "Direct Action” on 29th July 1946 that coincided with general strike of transport, industrial, postal, Banks and government employees.  In August 1946  mass protests and Hartals were started that caused  havoc and destruction in Indian provinces.   Muslim procession was attacked in  Calcutta that triggered communal riots, murder,arson and looting  spreading  to Bombay,Delhi, Bengal, Noakhali, Bihar and other places claiming the toll of half a million lives till 1946.  Jinnah was blamed for the mayhem.  Nevertheless, Jinnah stated that the united British India was made by sword and it could be preserved only by sword.  He declared in the concluding session of Council of Muslim League, “Today we bid good-bye to constitutional methods.”,  and “ We have also forged a pistol and are in a position to use it, and  it was in response  to the policies of British and Congress using arms and threats of mass struggle.” Jinnah announced that Muslim  armed forces should reconsider their loyalty to British government.    In the meeting  jointly attended by Congress and  Muslim League leaders and British  officials under Viceroy, it was decided to accept  Muslim League as a national force and felt Pakistan as a reality, still  emphasized upon United India  Cabinet Mission then announced their own plan, because of explosive situation, based on B and C groups of Muslim majority areas in  NWFP, Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and  in west Bengal and Assam respectively  with their own separate assemblies in the united India. After ten years they were supposed to opt out for complete independence.  Qaid got the ten years plan approved  by  Muslim League Council and addressed the Council that “ Under the plan Postponement for Ten years  a complete Pakistan would  emerge, instead of truncated Pakistan, with bigger areas  without bloodshed, as it was anticipated, and  it would be in a parliamentary ways..  On September 2, 1946 Wavel invited Congress to form the Interim Government without Muslim League participation in the Interim Government. Congress formed the  Interim Government.  Jinnah expressed his desire to enter the government and not to leave the entire administration  in the hands of Congress.   Jinnah decided therefore to join the Interim Government on October 13, 1946.  Congress allocated finance ministry to Muslim League.  Liaqat Ali Khan held the finance portfolio who presented in the assembly his budget that was called “poor man's budget;”big business men were heavily taxed,  the affected people were mostly Hindu capitalists. The setup thus placed the whole government under Muslim finance ministry.  Sardar Patel said it was based on communal considerations who agreed to accept Pakistan followed by Nehru. Gandhi made his last attempt to prevent Pakistan  coming into existence, and proposed a new central government but Nehru rejected out right.  Muslim League was joined by feudal lords, rich tribal chiefs, influential members and other opportunists, who defected  from Unionist Party in Punjab and Sindh which was already riddled with factions and rivalries.  Peer of Mankisharif the most influential Sufi in Frontier gave his full support  and “Fatwa” in favour of Pakistan followed by other sufis. .  Jinnah wanted not only people's  support, he wanted their financial support also.  Jinnah declared "Every vote in favour of Muslim League candidates  means “Pakistan,”every vote against the Muslim League means “Hindu Raj.” . All India Muslim Students from Bengal and Aligarh played very important role in introducing the ideology of Pakistan. Unionist Party  of Punjab and United Party in Sind and Saadullah of Assam with his party members joined Muslim League.  Eventually Muslim League in NWFP and Assam won the Referendum in 1947 in favour of Pakistan.  British Government had already decided to jettison India without delay, decided to withdraw in March 1948 or not later than June 1948.  Lord Mountbatten replaced Wavell in March 1947,  who was authorized to act on his own initiative by Attlee government to decide the fate of India. “Congress had already passed resolutions conceding Pakistan in their working committee meetings in 1942,1945 and finally passed  resolution on 15th June 1947 agreeing with the plan of Mountbatten as  announced by him on 3 June.”.[ Jinnah  India-Partition  Independence by Jasvant Singh].  Mountbatten  decided to quit in haste, declared  the partition date finally fixed as 14th August 1947 under the Independence Act of  1947,  on his own whim and fancy after a short period of 72 days.   Jinnah pleaded for more time citing the example of Ireland  where the British had taken more than two years just to agree on the modalities of the transfer of power. ]. Jinnah unprepared for the change and fearing another reversal called again for “Direct Action.”   Bengal and NWFP voted to join Pakistan in June 1947 and Sylhet region of Assam opted to join Pakistan in July. Bengal was divided into East and West Bengal, Punjab into East Punjab and West Punjab on the basis of Hindus and Muslim majority areas.  Muslim League had little time to seek a better formula for the division.  Muslim League thus got “a moth-eaten, truncated Pakistan  which was further eroded by Radcliffe as its geographic and demographic aspects were ill-defined.  Demarcation of boundary lines were  not done on  impartial  ground. The commission  was considered controversial to have taken other factors unknown. It was agreed in the meeting of Boundary Commission to give the Commission the flexibility to disregard the majority principle wherever considered necessary. Such provisions as it was seen later after partition marred the relationship between Pakistan and India and to create serious consequences that led later to wars.  Under Radcliffe  Boundary Award the two Muslim majority districts of Gurdaspur in the Punjab and Murshidabad in Bengal initially allotted to Pakistan were also taken away over-night; Head water Works was placed in East Punjab, India, besides control points of  canals vital for irrigation in Pakistan.  The news of sudden change in the boundary allocations were kept in abeyance till 16th August 1947 when the transfer of power was over in order to avoid protests or untoward incidence at the time of independence celebrations.  The Award was published on 17, August, as such Pakistan and India becoming independent countries on 14 and 15 August respectively, were quite unaware of  the boundary lines dividing their countries.  He acknowledged that the partition plan was far from perfect and was open to find faults.  He considered moth eaten  Pakistan as only the solution for Congress and Muslim League impasse, and to let the people in the subcontinent to live in peace and to prevent communal riots and bloodshed. The contiguous national boundaries of western Wing and eastern Wing  separated  thousand of miles by hostile India had serious impact on the solidarity and security of  Pakistan as seen later in 1971 in the break up of the country.    Five hundred sixty five [565] Princely states were given the option either to accede to Pakistan or India or remain independent under the Independence Act of 1947.  Partition triggered  communal riots; murder, looting, arson,  kidnappings and dislocation of millions of peoples all over India  unprecedented in the world  history. The proposed scheme of  Joint Defense Council for India and and Pakistan could not materialize for reasons unknown.   Qaid-e-Azam declined the offer of Lord Mountbatten aspiring  for the post of  Governor General of Pakistan, who assumed himself the top post on 14th. Aug.1947.   Thereupon,  Mountbatten  became much infuriated and  responded in the threatening attitude that “It may well cost you the whole of your assets and the future of Pakistan” vide ‘The Great Divide” by H.V.Hudson, page 331.   On the contrary, if Mountbatten was accepted, otherwise, to be the first Governor-General, the division of assets, Kashmir   problem might have been solved to some an extent, and the massacre of Muslims and Hindus taking the toll of human lives in millions would have been prevented since it was committed earlier by Mountbatten to contain riots and bloodshed in 1947.  It was the largest  mass bloody migration of more than 14 millions Hindus and Muslims to and from India and Pakistan ever witnessed in world history to seek a separate homeland, who fell victim to massacre, gang rape, kidnapping, looting, arson and dislocation.  Two million Muslims and about one million non -Muslims lost their lives and more than ten million Muslims reached Pakistan in the most traumatic conditions over span of many years.   ] Five million Hindus and mostly Sikhs migrated from West Punjab to India in bloodshed.
@@[Rupees 20 crores [200 million] earlier agreed as Pakistan’s interim allocation from the cash balances and the share of military assets and armed forces were withheld by India.]  The influx of refugees and their rehabilitation  greatly strained the poor physical, economical and the meager financial resources , further aggravated  following the deaths of Jinnah and Liaquat, key founding leaders beside wars with India, internal threads of provincial hostilities and demise of Muslim Leaque in East Bengal quite unforeseen which would have destabilized  Pakistan still in infancy.  The Refugee problem alone could have suffocated Pakistan at birth.” [The History of Nations, Pakistan by Jan Einfeld.   The appointment of Ghulam Mohammed, a technocrat in finance, Sir Zafarullah Khan as foreign minister and Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani in the cabinet by Qaid made by Qaid caused dissatisfaction  among Muslim League leaders.   
East Bengal demanded Bengali as national language along with Urdu.  Jinnah insisted Urdu, a “Lingua Franca,”to be  the national language but Bengalis insisted other wise for equal status of Bengali. .Jinnah could not convince the mob. Muslim League's handling of language issue in the very beginning sowed the seed of  dissensions.
In  North Western Frontier Province Red Shirt / Khudai Khidmatgar party  led by Ghaffar khan, and his brother Dr.Khan Sahib,the chief minister of the pro Congress provincial government, was removed by Qaid for his disloyalty to Pakistan.  In  Sindh M.A.Khuro, the  chief minster, since pre-partition days,  defied Qaid  because of ideological differences with him. G.M.Syed formerly a Muslim Leaguer, formed his own anti- Muslim League 'Jiya Sind' party.  Khan of Qalat,Baluchistan  having reservations  agreed to join Pakistan provided that their complete internal autonomy would not be compromised. Jinnah failed to settle the differences among the conflicting Muslim League leaders in Punjab province where a pro Congress ministry of Unionist Party was led by Khizar Hayat Khan. Governor's rule was imposed which continued even after the death of Jinnah.
Death of Qaid on 11nth September,1948, left behind hosts of problems unresolved; Constitution of Pakistan [ as it was still under India Act of 1935], share in the division of monetary and army assets with India, Kashmiir problem and rehabilitation of refugees, controversial Bengali language issue and dissensions in Punjab Muslim League ministry that[ affected the stability of Pakistan for long.  His strenuous efforts  to sustain Pakistan were not less painful than his efforts for achievement of Pakistan.  Had the serious lungs disease of Qaid come to the knowledge of Viceroy of India just at the time of Partition, partition might have been delayed or never was done since Jinnah, an embodiment of Pakistan, was only responsible for its creation..  His charismatic leadership achieved Pakistan but could not sustain its identity as one nation.  Qaid-e-Millat was no match to Qaid who was considered alien being refugee from India. He was  refused his constituency in Pakistan.  He introduced PRODA [Public Representative offices Disqualification Act] against his opponents. As he  had long been under the shadow of Qaid, his priority was to exorcize the vice regal attitude and to introduce Islamic constitution. Under the Objective Resolution of Assembly  in 1949, Basic Principle Committee recommended Islamic constitution [non secular] in negation to Qaid's vision of secular state, upheld the decision of language issue[i.e Urdu as national language], representation to the National Assembly on parity rate between West and East Pakistan in disregard to their population ratio and demography. Constitution proposals rejected by East and West Pakistan created political chaos all over the country.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
He was constrained to elucidate his constitutional measures in public but he was shot dead under a conspiracy. Ghulam Mohammed, a retired finance minister and a sick man having suffered heart stroke,was chosen to occupy the post of Qaid under  the bureaucratic manoeuvrings of some Punjab political leaders.  It was the beginning of bureaucratic dictatorship and vice regal tradition a legacy of he past continued in the subsequent regimes for long. He dismissed the sitting prime ministers, Kh.Nazimuddin and Mohammed Ali Bogra and justified his actions under the  prerogative  powers as  the representative to British Crown under India Act of 1935.   Maulvi Tamizuddin,speaker of constituent assembly, challenged his extra -constitutional powers in High Court and got  verdict against him.  But the  Federal Court reversed the High Court verdict,further justified  the  Emergency Powers under the  “Doctrine of Necessity” ultimately to remove the impasse. This Doctrine of Necessity persisted long to accord legitimacy to powers in military take overs in the  judicial decisions till Gen Parvez Musharraf who on the contrary victimized the judiciary. .  
Constitution of Pakistan  passed in the assembly in 1956 effective from 23rd March was declared as Islamic Republic which was opposed later by the political parties, expectations were  short lived. Provinces were merged into one unit.  Iskander Mirza,the first president with his ambitious designs and vice regal tradition ruled over parliament to remove prime minister, to abrogate constitution and dissolve assemblies. Game of assembly making and breaking almost destabilized Pakistan..  Awami League in East Pakistan insisted on incorporation of 21 points in the program limiting center's powers to defense,foreign affairs and currency only.  Ayub Khan, chief of the army, was constrained to impose Marshal Law in October 1958 in the country because of the political and constitutional crises in both the wings going beyond control. Supreme Court validated the military coup  and provided legitimacy to power under the “Doctrine of Necessity”. Constitution of 1956 was abrogated, cabinet and assemblies were dissolved, political parties were banned. Under his ordinances  [EBDO and PODO] ministers and civil servants were disqualified and arrested. Ayub promulgated his own constitution in 1961 for presidential form of government.   He admitted Z.A.Bhutto into his cabinet being impressed by him who played a major role as Ayub's confidante but revolted against him to topple down his regime. He was strongly opposed by S.H.Suhrwardy. Under Basic Democracy elections, he was elected and nominated as president upto March 1965. Again he won the elections in 1965 against Mohtarma Fatimah Jinnah.   Sheikh Mujibur Rehman of Awami League in East Pakistan announced his manifesto,  called for “Two Economies”;regional autonomy, and a constitution which had reference to Lahore Resolution of 1940. .  An "Operarion Gibralter"was launched by Pakistan army led by ISI, at the behest of Z.A.Bhutto,  sending troops covertly to assist Kashmiri Mujahideen for liberation of Kashmir  Again second attempt “Operation Grand Salam” was launched. Both the attempts were repulsed by India which led to War in September of 1965.  Peace terms were negotiated under “Tashkent Declaration” dictated by   Soviet Union which  was signed by India and Pakistan. The attack on West Pakistan was averted miraculously.  Bhutto opposed bitterly the Tashkent Declaration and resigned in protest on July 8,1966, who formed, later, Peoples Party of Pakistan in association with the senior leaders.  Bhutto, a close associate of Ayub Khan, revolted against his own mentor.  A conspiracy plot was hatched by Skh. Mujibur Rehman in coalition with Indian Agents in Agartala for separation of East Pakistan.  Many government officials and political leaders were involved in the conspiracy plot, who were arrested.  Six points of  Mujib of Awami League and twelve points of National Awami League were presented for provincial autonomy.   Insurgency broke out through out country. Mujibur Rehman emphasized upon two economies and two constitutions in the Election Manifesto of Awami League.  Eventually more than  two decades later they demanded sovereign independent East Bengal which was actually a pre-partition concept for united independent  Bengal propounded by H.S.Suhrwardy.  Atyb Khan handed over the powers to Gen.Jahya Khan who considered the  military operation to crush Awami League as only the solution in which even university students and professors were not spared. Under  General Elections held in December 1970  showed that Skh. Mujibur Rehman's Awami League was single  largest party in East Pakistan and Z. A.Bhutto's PPP was second largest party in West Pakistan. But the transfer of power was made conditional under Legal Frame Work Order[ LFWO] according to the whims and fancies of the Gen.  AL and PPP were divided on the point of constitution accord and Punjabis did not accept the election results against democratic norms. AL insisted upon the meeting of Assembly  Meeting which was postponed.  AL resorted to violence and civil disobedience that prompted Yahya to resume military action who had actually no intention to transfer power.  Mujib in collusion with India  announced “Sovereign independent Peoples Republic of Bangla Desh”. Full scale war broke out with the support of India backed by Soviet Russia.  Pakistan was partitioned. It was again the Divide and Rule policy inherited from the British colonial rule by the political parties standing polarized. It was culpable negligence and failure in the performance of professional duties as COC of Eastern Command and  Senior Officers who were liable to be court- martialed.   Pakistan government has been insisting upon the self determination of Kashmiris but ignored the legitimate demands and even  rejected the verdict of masses given in the election results. The loss of  war on accession of Kashmir; loss of war on secession of East Pakistan were a great blow to the identity of Pakistan.  Once Muslims' concern "Islam in Danger" demanded separate homeland, was now "Bengali Identity in Danger"demanded Bangla Desh that further subdivided the Muslim nation in the subcontinent. Z.A.Bhutto of PPP on the other hand had his own ambitious designs to be  an absolute ruler having carte blanche who became a first civil martial administrator subsequently as President for four months and as prime minister  under his revised constitution of 1973. which was according to Islamic Injunctions. He was the most powerful prime minister to supersede  parliament with vice regal attitude of his precedent rulers who exploited the ignorance and diversity of the masses. He  announced semi socialist reforms and got a bill passed to replace Urdu with Sindhi as provincial language that negated Qaid's vision.  Mohajirs reacted to his Sindhi identity and provincialism and decided to form Mohajir Movement.  Riots broke out between Sindhis and Mohajirs in Hyderabad and karachi.  He faced strong political opponents from within and without  his own party who were victimized and arrested  He was accused of rigging the elections and assassination of his political rival that made the public to react violently demanding his removal.. The situation appeared similar to that happened in 1970 leading to separation of East Pakistan. Martial Law by Gen. Ziaul Huq was imposed through out the country. Bhutto was removed and hanged under court verdict on the charges of assassination of a political opponent  which was,however, called judicial murder. Pakistan cane under third martial law legitimized  again by Supreme Court  under  “Doctrine of Necessity.” Zia  decided  to enforce strict Islamiztion  Programme in Pakistan and declared political parties system unIslamic as Islamic heritage.   He did not suspend 1973 constitution but issued Provisional Constitutional Order for maximum powers of the executive as sovereign authority over Parliament.  Eight Amendment 58b2 to the constitution was made to authorize the president  to dismiss prime minister and dissolve assemblies on the charges of incompetence.  He reviewed Federal Laws and issued number of ordinances according to Islamic Sharia.  Ahmedis were declared as  non Muslims who were liable for criminal offense to pose as Muslims.  He introduced Blasphemy Law to award death sentence for its violation which is said to be  misused to settle personal scores. Pakistani nation was divided over the law which claimed extra judicial killings.  His Islamization program violated human rights that was opposed and criticized by political parties who considered his program actually to perpetuate his legitimacy to power more than the Islamic reforms. His Jehad [holy war] against Soviet Russia but created host of problems for Pakistan such as  migration of Afghan refugees into Pakistan  followed by drug mafia, gun running 'Kalashnikov culture' spreading all over the country which have now developed into targeted killings and kidnapping beyond control.  Sectarianism intensified giving birth to     Sipah-e- Sahaba and Sipah-e-Mohammed  who fought pitched. battles in Karachi and Jhang , claimed  the death toll of thousands and many more wounded.   ISI operated  independently who were  not responsible to the president or army chief, who came under the influence of militants  criticized Zia's Islamization.  He tried to boost up his presidential powers by introducing 58b2 of constitutional amendment to dismiss prime minister and his cabinet.  The vice regal attitude  a tradition of past continued from out set. Muttahida Mohajir Organization [MQM] was formed by Mohajirs in reaction to  Sindhi identity and rise of Jiya Sind Party. Murder and arson were committed in the  first ethnic riots broke out  between Mohajirs and Pathans as happened in 1947 between Muslims and Hindus.. It was a blow to the vision of Pakistan that Muslims being a separate entity can coexist in a separate home land.  Zia and ISI while working on the strategy to establish pan-Islamic confederation of Pakistan and Afghanistan and for the removal of Marxist government ignored internal threats of sectarian and ethnic riots. Talibans were nurtured by ISI and army. He faced internal challenges posed by Raw and KHAD,divisions in his own army.   He  dismissed prime minister, Mohammed Khan Junejo under 58b2, and dissolved assemblies on the charges of  failure to contain the sectarian and ethnic conflicts, and joining with the opposition  against his Islamization program.  Zia's implementation of Islamic Legal Code as the supreme Law of the country  came into conflict with existing laws  and created  suspicion and uproar. Before he  could realize his vision of  a 'Islamic Utopia,  he died unfortunately in a mysterious plane crash. Public celebrated the demise of the military ruler. Zia's era ended in violence and chaos like Z.A.Bhutto's era damaging country's economy rather than to make good the loss done during the post fall of Dacca period. Zia;s Islamization could not effect moral transformation.  Zia had lost control over ISI and Mujahideen  in Afghanistan and clandestine forces in Kashmir. Army hierarchy suffered after the assassination of Zia and his generals.  Democracy returned to Pakistan    Ghulam Ishaq Khan as president  nominated Benazir Bhutto, a president's choice, after  elections. She inherited the legacy of her late father,Z.A. Bhutto, pledged  democracy, emphasized on co-operation with  Nawaz Sharif but  acted on the contrary, indulged in personal vendetta, and  confrontations with him who was viewed by her as the personification of Zia, the killer of her father.. She was opposed by clerics and ISI[Inter Services Intelligence]  to be the prime minister. She was opposed and defied by Nawaz Sharif the chief minister of Punjab over the appointment of PPP  Secretary General as governor of Punjab province and other civilians without his consent. 
G.M.Syed  demanded independent "Sindhu Desh," his party workers seized airport and burned Pakistani  flag. Separatist movements reinforced in Baluchistan when Akbar Bugti demanded provincial autonomy.  Ethnic riots broke out in Sindh, called  army to carry out military action. Government and IJI opposition were engaged in horse trading so much that millions of rupees were spent to purchase loyalties of defecting members,  never witnessed in the history of Pakistan.  Benazir's had confrontation with the President and the Judiciary over the appointment of Judges to the Supreme Court, and over the appointment of  high ranking military officers.  Before she attempted to  amend the constitution to prevent /preempt her dismissal,  President had decided already to take action taking Nawaz, into confidence, exercising powers under 58b2 amendment to the constitution.  She was dismissed on the charges of corruption, maladministration, horsetrading, nepotism and failure in  legislative functions after a short period of 18 months.  Nawaz Sharif supported by establishment and G.I.Khan won the midterm elections and became prime minister in 1990. Benazir accused government of rigging in elections.  Nawaz promulgated Shariat laws under which Federal and Provincial Laws were declared repugnant to Islam. He aspired  to assume absolute powers of  “Ameerul Momineen”[commander of the faithful] in disguise  like Zia-ul-Haq. He was criticized for his shift to Islamization from democratic rule as committed earlier by him.  Federal Shariat Court pointed out that the country's laws were against Islamic Laws; 'Riba ' was considered repugnant  to Islamic Law, as such the financing of Power Projects  schemes under foreign investment was considered unIslamic which was a set back for foreign investment.  Nawaz Sharif was accused in Cooperative Societies scandal  in witch two million investors lost their investment of   Rs. 24 billions which deprived him much of    popular support in public. Because of lawlessness in Punjab, he got 12th amendment to the constitution passed by the assembly empowering him to impose summary justice. Operation Clean up by military was launched  in Karachi and in interior Sindh which continued  till the second tenure of Benazir.  Mysterious assassination of well known personalities  was followed by crack down on MQM activists who had already dissensions with Nawaz over his Islamization programme, went  under- ground, and legislators resigned from the Provincial and National Assemblies, which was reminiscent of military action in East Pakistan in 1971.    Nawaz had confrontation wit G.I.Khan, president, over the appointment of  Asif Nawaz Janjua to succeed  Gen.Aslam Baig, chief of army, which  was made by the president  without consultation with Nawaz.    Nawaz was reluctant to support G.I.Khan for another term of office apprehending his powers under 58b2 to dismiss prime minister.  Benazir had secret meeting with G.I.Khan  and urged  for removal of Nawaz, and  pledged in return to reelect Khan  for another term of office.  G.I.Khan suspected Nawaz Sharif for the death of army chief,Asif Nawaz Janjua, following the complaint of the late Gen's wife, who was counter blamed by Nawaz for the death of the army chief.  G.I.Khan felt disgraced and announced the dismissal order for Nawaz using his constitutional powers.  But the  Supreme Court declared the dismissal orders illegal and unconstitutional..In view of the constitutional and political crisis created by the tussle between President and Nawaz, Chief of Army Staff, Gen.Abdul Waheed Kakar intervened and advised that both the President and Nawaz Sharif should  resign for the sake of the security and solidarity of the country and suggested  midterm elections  putting an end to the palatial political intrigues.  Both the president and the prime minister resigned on July 18,1993.  Benazir won the mid term elections against Nawaz and held second term of office.  Farooq Ahmed Leghari her own party member was elected for the post of president.  The head of the government and head of state being of the one and the same party were expected to act in unison.  Murtaza  Bhutto  claimed to be the real successor to his late father,Z.A.Bhutto, according to the family laws and at the behest of her mother, Nusrath Bhutto, who had family dispute was shot dead in targeted killing by police.   Nusrat Bhutto was replaced with her husband as chairman of her party by Benazir.   Nawaz  started his campaign to defame Benazir and topple down PPP government.  She was accused of involvement in banking scandal which was criticized and much  publicized by media in public.  Benazir reacted to order investigations into Nawaz's family fortune, tax evasion. bank loans default, and ordered to arrest Nawaz Sharif's old father on the fake charges of fraud.  Nawaz  reacted violently protesting against her in the joint parliamentary session during presidential address.  Opponents were harassed and arrested . "Rock-wood"mansion in Surrey for sterling 2.7 million and two luxury flats in London's prestigious district of Belgravia were reported to have been purchased, but the charges  were, however, denied by her.   Sectarian clashes between Shia and Sunni took the toll of more than 100 lives in Parachinar. Radical movement in the name of Tehrik Nifaz-e-Mohammadi led by Sufi Mohammed demanded imposition of Shariat Laws[Islamic Law] in the country, challenged writ of government, rallied on streets,occupied airport at Saidu Sharif, seized and murdered government officials.   Military was called to quell the insurrection.  Reactionary politico-religious parties SSP{Sipah-e-Sahaba of Pakistan] of Sunni sect and SMP[Sipah-e-Mohammadi of Pakistan] of Fiq-e-Jafaria  fought with each other; mosques and Imambaras  were attacked claiming more than 25 dead including SSP chief,Maulana Ziar-Rehman.  Following the formal retirement of General A.Waheed kakar, President Legari appointed General Jehangir Karamat as the Chief of Army Staff in 1996.  Tension between MQM[A] and PPP since long made the coalition to break down. Police  raided Pucca Quila in Hyderabad claiming death toll of many residents which was reminiscent of Jalian Wala Bagh massacre in British Raj.   During the Operation Clean Up carried out by military, pitched battle between MQM[A] and military forces claimed more  than 2000 deaths in 1995 including important personalities.   The operation was reminiscent of military action in East Pakistan in 1970-71.  Military was given free hand to deal with  MQM[A], many innocent persons fell victims, the party activists left Pakistan and some were killed in fake encounters.  “Military was replaced by Rangers and Police, who proceeded to 'clean up' action in the  city from 1994 to 1996 but problem reemerged in 2008, or perhaps earlier.” [Dawn dated September 9,2011]  Govt. refused to negotiate with MQM labeling them as miscreants and accusing them to establish Mohajir Desh.   Anti-Punjabi sentiments made Punjabi industrialists and business men to flee Karachi resulting in the flight of capital and decline in commercial activities that damaged the economy of  the province.  Private banks and commercial institutions could not function independently of government interference.   Above all, confrontation with the judiciary was most damaging when the appointment of female judges  without the  authorization of Lahore High Court and. the early retirement of judges of Supreme Court and Provincial High Courts were made by the government, and the orders of  Supreme Court to cancel the  appointment of 20 PPP stalwarts as  additional judges on ad hoc basis was not implemented by the government. She expanded her cabinet  including her husband, Asif Zardari. She appointed 78000 of her cronies on the basis of loyalty to her on government jobs.  In October 1995 forty army officers were arrested under the charges of revolt against her government that caused split in the army followed by the forced retirement of Gen.Kakar, COAS, who was succeeded by Gen Jehangir Karamat.  Due to the worsening of  law and order situation and accusations against Benazir, Farooq Leghari, president, dismissed the prime minister  exercising  his powers under 58b2 on the charges of extra judicial killings of rival party workers, nepotism and corruption. .
Nawaz Sharif became prime minister second time after winning mid term elections against Benazir.   He emphasized democratic rule and welfare of public  In order to curb the  presidential powers under 58b2,  he successfully introduced 13th Amendment to the constitution depriving the president of his powers  to dismiss prime minister and his/her cabinet   It was appreciated by Benazir for removing the "Sword of Damocles"hanging over the prime ministers since 1988. Under the pressure of army and the specially ISI gaining prominent position, Nawaz recognized the Taliban's  regime in Afghanistan.  Osama bin Laden a multi million Saudi national, a top leader of AlQaida  emerged to lead the Taliban movement in Afghanistan and Pakistan.  Again rifts developed between the government and the judiciary  over the  appointment of 5 judges by Supreme Court.  Nawaz agreed to the appointment under the pressure of  chief justice and the president but maneuvered to create rifts in the judiciary by  instigating Peshawar bench and Baluchistan bench against the chief justice  that divided  Supreme Court into two parallel courts.    The.Chief Justice accused Nawaz Sharif of contempt of court  which was responded by his party  members, senators and MLAS resorting to storming  Supreme Court building.  In view of the rowdyism  committed by Nawaz's  party members, Supreme Court judges decided to reinstate  the presidential powers to dismiss prime minister repealing the 13th amendment.  But the Chief Justice and the President ultimately had to  resign under the arbitrary decision of the army in view of security and solidarity of  the country.  Prime minister of the trio was left alone, emboldened and unchallenged unlike  previous prime ministers who had to go  under humiliating dismissals since 1988.  Nawaz  avenged his past dismissal in his first term of office.  In order to crush his opponents he got the 14th Amendment to the constitution passed by the assembly to ban the defection of legislative party members, to set up Summary Trial Courts parallel to Supreme Court without its approval, and to empower police and security forces to shoot to kill miscreants rallying on streets without any  trial in the court of law. Economic sanctions  were imposed by USA and European countries, and foreign investment was withdrawn following nuclear bombs tests done in reaction to India's tests.  Nuclear tests could deter the external threats not the internal threats that damaged the country's economy and stability. Having  the credit of successful nuclear tests, he got 15th amendment to the constitution passed by the National Assembly which empowered him to be an orthodox ruler,  "Amirul Momineen"{commander of the faithful,}to rule over Parliament, Judiciary and Provincial governments.  He was opposed for his shift to  Islamization programme by the political parties.  Fall in the foreign reserves were met by converting  foreign  currency deposits into Pak. Rupees in the bank accounts of private individuals which were used to meet the balance of payments and servicing of debts  as the State Bank was becoming bankrupt.  Rafiq Tarrar, retired judge and a close friend of Mian Mohammed Sharif, father of Nawaz Sharif, succeeded Wasim Sajjad as President of Pakistan.  Thus the President, Prime minister, Chairman of senate and Army chief were all from Punjab.  The domination of Punjabis was denounced, autonomous status of provinces  reflecting linguistic and ethnic diversity was demanded  in the wake of the secession of East Pakistan, which had  reference also to the 1940 Lahore Resolution.  Jehangir Karamat criticized Nawaz's undemocratic policies openly in public that country could not survive led by  primitive Islamic tradition without a national spirit  and secular state for a country having  ethnic and linguistic diversities..Gen Karamat  made him responsible for the chaos in the country and suggested National Security Council set up  in the interest of country's security and political stability. Nawaz considered it as breach of trust and forced of Gen Karamat  to resign  He chose Parvez Musharraf considering him as compliant [Mohair] General  to replace Jehangir Karamat.. Unpleasant relationship started to develop in the begginnig with Gen.Parvez Musharraf.  because of noncompliance of Nawaz]s orders to court martial the editor of "Friday Times."  His  relations with the Chief of  Staff deteriorated further over Kargil expedition in which the army came in serious combat with the Indian army.  Nawaz Sharif came under international pressure for withdrawal of forces. He decided to retire number of generals thereafter.  The Army was aware of the absolute dominance of  prime minister for long and ISI's role independent of army's supervision.  The army had already  sent a warning note to Nawaz  following the resignations of President and the Chief  Justice of Supreme Court tendered by them under the military's arbitration.  Nawaz Sharif decided covertly to replace Gen Musharraf with Gen Ziaddin while he was on his official visit to Sri Lanka.  He committed a political somersault while he was at zenith of his  powers to have removed Mushrraf in his absence. The plane carrying Musharraf with many other passengers from Sri Lanka  was refused landing at Karachi airport.  The army commanders  loyal to Gen Musharraf sensing the civil coup rejected the orders of Nawaz  First time in the history of Pakistan army was divided by the political palace intrigues of Nawz.. The civil coup was followed by successful counter coup by army.  Nawaz was accused of sedition  and was  awarded death sentence by the court which was commuted to 25 years.  Gen.Musharraf compassionately granted clemency for the two brothers unlike Gen.Zia who rejected  the appeals of clemency from all over the world for  Bhutto.  Dismissal of Parvez Musharraf,   Chief of Army Staff, was declared illegal and unconstitutional by  the Supreme court of Pakistan, under the "Doctrine of Necessity" to legalize legitimacy to power as had been a practice since the era of  the Ex-Governor General, Ghulam Mohammed. Democracy ended after Benazir and Nawaz Sharif becoming alternate prime ministers playing like the game of musical chairs, who plegded democracy but indulged in personal vendetta ignored public welfare.. Parvez Musharraf was the Chef of Staff and Chief Executive as well.  He  did not declare Martial Law and suspend the constitution, political parties were not banned and press was free contrary to the post martial laws in the past. . Many western countries opposed Pakistan for supporting  Taliban and Kashmiri militants. Pakistan was to be declared a terrorists state. After removing Rafiq Tarar, the president, Musharraf assumed himself the post of President and Chief executive as well both at one and the same time validated under 17th amendment of 2003 which was supported by religious parties also. After the sudden attack on twin towers of World Trade Center in New York by the terrorists on September 11,2001, Musharraf in response to the call of  George Bush, president of US   chose to join the USA and Western Countries to wage war on terror in the best national interest considering the safety and security of Pakistan and its armed forces and internal threats faced by the country.  His choice earned  approbation of the Western countries and he became a trusted ally being in the fore front  to fight terrorism. Since Afghan Talibans and AlQaida were the suspected perpetrators in the attack on the twin towers, many  Qaida members in Pakistan were rounded up, arrested and handed over to USA and.  Major military operation was carried out in South Waziristan in pursuit of  Talibans.  In reaction Christian school in Murree  and Christian hospital in Taxila came under attack.. In karachi French team of naval engineers and US consulate were attacked.  American journalist,Daniel Pearl was kidnapped and murdered.  Attempts were made for assassination of Musharraf, president, and Shaukat Aziz, prime minister who escaped the deadliest attack  miraculously. Pakistan had been Taliban  friendly till September 2001. ISI was brought under  the control of army command and pro Taliban elements in army were purged.  Musharraf tried to root out terrorism and violence.  Sectarian clashes since long because of  religious intolerance and hatred divided the nation and gave  birth to sectarian  religious-political parties, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi,Sipah-e-Mohammed and Sipah-e-Sahaba, Jaish Mohammed and many others who were banned to contain violence and Jehadism.  Government announced closing of 254 offices of the banned organizations and arrested their more than thousand activists.  Mushroom growth of Madressahs and seminaries had attracted many youths for teaching Quran and Hadith, and encouraged  jehadism to counter the Soviet occupation in Afghanistan. Thirty six thousand foreign students; 17 thousand from Arab countries were reported to be enlisted in six hundred  Madressahs in Pakistan.  Musharraf made it compulsory for the Madressahs to introduce modern education with subjects of science, computer science, mathematics etc in their curricula as prerequisite for their registration.   Musharraf suspended  Iftikhar Choudhry, chief justice of Supreme Court, accusing him of stepping out of judicial parameters. He victimized the judiciary which legalized the military take overs on the principle of “Doctrine of Necessity” since  Ayub Khan's Martial Law in 1958.   Suspension of the chief justice created political and judicial  turmoil all over the country, lawyers protested and rallied on streets demanding the reinstatement of the chief justice.   Balochistan revolted traditionally for full autonomy, came under military operation in which Nawab Akbar Bukti was killed  in ammunition blast. followed by   violent reactions against the centre.  Students of Madressah in Red Mosque, Islamabad, demanded imposition of Shariah Laws in the country. They stormed the streets, hotels, health care units and came into clash with police.. Students transcended their Madaressah curricula, formed a state within a state challenging the writ of government to impose Shariat Law in the country.. Madressah had become a sanctuary for Talibans who were well equipped with modern weapons. Military was called to quell  the uprising.  A pitched battle took place between Red Madressah students and Pakistan army which claimed  the toll of lives of many innocent students of Madressah,the Pakistan army commander and the Madressah principal.  Parvez Musharraf being  President and Chief Executive at the one and  same time came under the pressure of political parties to choose to be either President or Chief Executive in uniform.  Under National Reconciliation Order announced by Musharraf,  political leaders in exile including Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were awarded  immunity who were welcomed back to Pakistan to contest their parties elections.  Benazir returned to Pakistan from her  self imposed exile but fell victim to targeted killing during her election rally in Rawalpindi  followed by wave of violence in the country.  State of emergency was declared in the country in December.  After General Elections  PPP was called to form its government in coalition with ML{N} and Yousuf Reza Gilani elected as prime minister. . Musharraf  resigned on 18th December followed by impeachment proceedings by PPP and ML[N].  Pakistan remained under military rule for 35 years devoid of democratic rule.  Ayub Khan's Basic Democracy, Yahya Khan's Legal Frame Work Ordinence, Zia's Islamization program and Musharraf's Local Government Ordinance ended in fiasco and their governments were left in deeper political crisis.  Supreme Court asked the National Accountability Bureau [NAB] to reopen the cases against Asif Zardari, president, entailing Swiz Scam. Pakistan remained under military rule for 35 years devoid of democratic rule. Military's assignment at administrative duties and involvement in political affairs during martial law periods had affected their professional competence.  
Quaid-e-Azam's charismatic leadership achieved Pakistan but could not sustain its identity as was his vision. The dogmatic conception of Pakistan turned to be a mere chimera.  Muslims despite of living as a separate entity in Pakistan for sixty three years could not coexist  The blood shed and riots that commenced immediately after the demand of Pakistan persisted, nevertheless, after partition in Pakistan  turning into sectarian and ethnic bloody clashes, killings of Muslims by Muslims in Pakistan. Truncated Pakistan eroded further overnight at the time of partition and  within 24 years after Pakistan.  Pakistan   could not serve the cause of Muslims at large in the sub continent let alone within Pakistan.  Muslim culture has been responsive more to the civil and military dictatorship. There has been  institutional confrontations among governments, the establishment, judiciary and state. Pakistan has been a country divided by linguistic and ethnic diversities, moderate Muslims,  radicals, sects mainly Shia Sunni and many other Muslaks who have their own interpretations to Quran and Hadith for last many centuries that has been a tide of complex and violent  warfare among them which appear never to be stemmed since the rigidities in Muslaks reflects religious faith uncompromising.  Canada, Switzerland and USA despite linguistic,ethnic and religious diversities have succeeded to form federations and are progressing well in peace and prosperity.. .         Concluded.

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